Heart Maladies At Anemia

Primary severe anemia itself influences on blood circulation, but is seldom met. Much more often secondary anemia develops at infections or illnesses of metabolism.

Healthy people use for 5-6% of blood oxygen saturation. At normal hemoglobin content the increased need for oxygen is satisfied with increase of quantity of blood passing through tissues. If the quantity of bloody cells or hemoglobin content is low, enough oxygen is provided also with the best use of the oxygen content in blood. Even when in blood there is just 25-30% of hemoglobin of norm, the organism at rest can consume 5-6% of oxygen if uses all oxygen bound to hemoglobin.

Because of the increased loading heart at anemia enlarges, at longer anemia it hypertrophies. The need of cardiac muscle for oxygen is increased; the organism cannot satisfy it because of tachycardia and disadvantage of oxygen in blood. Increase load on muscle and insufficient providing with oxygen lead to fatty degeneration of cells. Heart of the people having serious anemia is very flabby and colorless.

On x-ray films the proportional cardiomegaly and a strong pulsation is visible. The blood pressure is usually lower than normal, because of compensatory extension of small arteries.

The heart failure is seldom met. At significant deficiency of oxygen permeability of vascular wall increases there can be edemas on face and extremities. At the slightest movement the patient has a dyspnea. With stopping of anemia symptoms quickly disappear. Anemia for children is dangerous, especially at dehydration.

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia (panmyelophthisis) is a specific illness of blood system with reduced formation of erythrocytes, granulocytes and thrombocytes in marrow. Together with an agranulocytosis and cytostatic illness refers to depressive illnesses of hematopoiesis.

The disease may develop at any age, usually after 50 years. Many drugs can become the reason: antibiotics (Levomycetinum, Streptomycin), Sulfanilamide, anti-inflammatory (Analgin), anti-tuberculous remedies (Isoniazid), cytostatic. Hemopoiesis is oppressed by chemicals: benzene, mercury vapors, oil products, physical factor is radiation are capable to cause aplastic anemia, endocrine and immune disturbances

In women having aplastic anemia can be found a cystic degeneration of ovaries, weakening of thyroid gland function. Sometimes aplastic anemia develops after infections: anginas, flu.

At research of marrow in it the quantity of blood making cells is sharply reduced, active marrow is replaced with fatty tissue. Sometimes marrow is absolutely “empty” – panmyelophthisis. It is reflected in condition of all organs. Atrophic changes develop in endocrine system – pituitary body, adrenals, ovaries, perhaps they are caused by the expressed hypoxia.

Aplastic anemia can be hereditary and acquired.

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Anemia At Chronic Inflammations

At chronic inflammatory diseases (including infectious) anemia often develops. Usually anemia appears at purulent diseases of lungs and other organs a month later after beginning of illness.

The hemoglobin content falls to 110-90 g/l. There is a norm chrome anemia – color and sizes of red blood cells, as a rule are within norm. Level of ferritin protein transferring iron in bloods is in norm, but the content of serum iron is decreased.

Sometimes anemia becomes the main symptom of latent disease, for example, of an urinary system (often at elderly people), an infectious endocarditis, suppuration in abdominal cavity. Any inexplicable depression of level of hemoglobin requires thorough research regarding the hidden inflammatory processes and tumors.

At patients with bronchial asthma or obstructive bronchitis anemia develops because of disadvantage of copper and zinc, though iron is in norm. It proves use in treatment of zinc – and copper containing medicines.

Bacterial and viral diseases can be also followed by anemia; some parasites (ameba) are capable to lead to strongly marked anemia.

The anemia which developed against illness recognized the basic, usually doesn’t require special treatment, efforts should be aimed on elimination of a basic disease. It is necessary to specify character of anemia in each case and to distinguish it from the genuine.

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Anemia At General Diseases

Anemia at the patients suffering from systemic illnesses of a connecting tissue arises for cause of disorders of erythropoietin synthesis, deficiency of iron owing to blood loss from stomach ulcers developing at long reception of anti-inflammatory drugs, deficiency of B12 vitamin caused by atrophic gastritis at which formation of enzymes and acid in stomach is reduced.

The pseudo-rheumatism is followed by anemia in half of cases, including iron deficiency anemia is observed at 25% of patients. The substances discharged to blood from inflammatory centers lower the content of iron in blood. At absence of symptoms of iron deficiency and autoimmune anemia the content of erythropoietin is investigated.

The iron deficiency anemia is cured with iron medicines. Anyway anemia is necessary to be treated together with basic disease of connecting tissue. Glucocorticoid hormones are prescribed at autoimmune anemia, Sometimes spleen is removed, medicines of B12 vitamin, folic acid.

At chronic cirrhosis or hepatitis such factors as a hemorrhage from expanded veins of the lower part of an esophagus and a stomach lead to anemia – an iron deficiency anemia develops. Shortage of folic acid at certain patients is possible, whereas on the contrary, B12 vitamin level is increased at the expense of substance exit from liver cells.

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Anemia At Heart Diseases

At patients with congenital heart diseases exogenous anemia – nutritional hypochromic iron deficiency is often observed. At this form of anemia the quantity of erythrocytes the total quality of hemoglobin is reduced, but concentration and hemoglobin content in erythrocytes is not so much reduced. The volume of erythrocytes decreases and the color indicator decreases.

For children hypochromic anemia is peculiar. It develops, despite quantity increase of erythrocytes, and differs in normal or low amount of hemoglobin at appreciable depression of color indicator. By 5-6 months of life the iron reserves by the time of the birth accumulated in liver are exhausted. Also children have a low concentration of the hydrochloric acid in a gastric juice, and the iron received with nutrition is badly soaked up. Heart diseases are accompanied often by a rickets and short-reception of nutrients by organism.

In children suffering from congenital cardiac defects of “blue” type except the specified factors chronic hypoxia at which pathological reaction of an organism – a polycythemia (increase of quantity of red bloody cells) develops becomes perceptible. But because of a dystrophy and balance disorder of iron marrow produces many erythrocytes poor in hemoglobin, with reduced diameter.

Frequency of hypochromic anemia for children sick with congenital heart diseases is 50%. Despite a hypoxia, skin cyanosis is insignificant or absent. Skin of pale gray color, hypotrophy, and rickets is often. Liver is considerably enlarged, heart failure increases, there are dyspnea, tachycardia, cardiac enlargement.

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Anemia At Kidneys Maladies

Anemia often accompanies any chronic illnesses of kidneys. This is the most frequent and early chronic kidney insufficiency complication. Intensity of anemia is influenced by its cause. The anemia arises for example, at diabetic nephropathy.

Hormone erythropoietin which stimulates formation of red blood cells is generated in kidneys. Its deficiency is the main factor of anemia development. Artificial erythropoietin is applied to treatment of renal anemia. It can eliminate almost completely anemia and reduce need for blood transfusion for renal patients.

Preparations of erythropoietin id usually injected subcutaneously as it is cheaper and more convenient for the patient. If the patient is compelled to undergo dialysis procedures, erythropoietin can be used during dialysis, injected intravenously. For some patients insusceptibility to erythropoietin develops.

The important place in development of renal anemia is taken also by deficiency of iron. It can be absolute (stocks reduction in organism) and functional (at inflammatory diseases). Deficiency of iron is characteristic for the patients who are regularly passing hemodialysis, not receiving iron medicines for a long time. The most important cause of iron deficiency is loss of 3-4 liters of a blood within a year that is equivalent to two grams of iron.

Patients with low level of hemoglobin beginning hemodialysis need to select thoroughly a heparin dose against blood clotting. Intravenous injection of iron medicines is obligatory for dialysis patients. Young women have a bigger need for iron than men. At absolute deficiency 1 gram of iron is entered within 6–10 weeks.

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Anemia At Pregnancy

Iron is indispensable to life. Human body the organism cannot synthesize without it hemoglobin necessary for oxygen transfer by bloody cells. Iron from the blasted erythrocytes is reused for formation of red bloody cells.

The non -pregnant woman loses with sweat, urine, feces, skin, fingernails and hair about 1-2 mg of iron every day, approximately the same quantity is soaked up in intestine. At menses 2-3 mg more iron daily are lost on average, at the plentiful menses – to 6 mg. Restoration requires sufficient supply of iron and normal work of all organs.

In the first three months of pregnancy the consumption of iron is equal to losses before pregnancy. But with growth of baby’s body the picture changes. In the second trimester (three months period) pregnant woman needs 2-4 mg of iron daily, in the third – 10-12 mg.

There can be extraordinary losses of iron at development of early toxicosis with vomiting, gastrointestinal tract disorder, change of hormonal background as a high level of estrogens reduces absorption of iron ions in the intestine. Chronic diseases also exhaust iron reserves and the absorption of iron is often broken and its consumption increases.

For restoration of iron reserves consumed for birth and feeding of the kid mother needs about 2-3 years.

Vitamin C stimulates iron absorption, but weakens calcium. It isn’t desirable to limit calcium consumption as the need for it is increased at pregnancy. A way out is a separate use of iron and calcium with an interval for 4 hours.

Vegetarians, pregnant women at teenage age if hemoglobin level by the beginning of pregnancy was less than 120 g/l, women with polycarpic pregnancy are included to group of risk.

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Anemia From Blood Loss

Acute blood loss emerges at wound of vessels or their destruction by pathological process: bleeding from stomach ulcer, from varicose veins of esophagus at cirrhosis, from hemorrhoid veins, pulmonary bleeding tuberculosis. Plentiful and sudden bleedings cause anemia.

Acute loss of 0.5 liters of blood by the healthy person of average weight causes light weakness, vertigo like at donating blood by donor. Loss of 700 ml of blood causes more expressed symptoms, and exceeding 50-65% of blood loss is lethal.

Degree of anemia depends and on existence of infection. At anaerobic infection (gangrene) anemia is most expressed and persistent as strengthened hemolysis is added.

At an acute anemia mass of circulating blood decreases, blood is depleted by erythrocytes, oxygen carriers. Then oxygen starvation comes.

Under the influence of blood loss marrow is activated. In tubular bones the yellow brain temporarily turns in red (active), strenuously restoring blood.

At acute big blood loss the patient is pale, weak, in severe cases faints. It has dyspnea, twitching of muscles, yawning, nausea and vomiting (brain anemia), sometimes hiccup, cold sweat, pulse is frequent, weak, and pressure is decreased.

Having recovered consciousness the patient complains of thirst. Gradually the state improves; there is a pulse, pressure increases. After loss of blood its tanks (spleen, skin) are emptied.

Anemia stimulates a hemopoiesis. The recovery rate depends on the amount of blood loss, on age of the patient and on timeliness of treatment. Fresh or tinned blood is transfused to the patient.

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Way Of Life Change At Anemia

Anemia is a disease which requires general way of life from the patient. The following has to become the basic rules of a new daily routine.

1. Proper rest. Rest leads to decrease of need of human organism in oxygen, and also reduces a load on heart and lungs.  People suffering of anemia, should have proper night rest and besides should sleep a couple of hours within a day.

2. Be careful of overcooling and overheating. People with anemia have a bad blood circulation.

3. Watch closely for oral cavity and lips. At anemia patients often have damages and wounds in these areas (for example, angular cheilosis). Use proper creams and hygienic lipsticks.

4. Daily use of natural iron. No synthetic and chemical compounds containing iron can replace natural iron. Eat as much as possible raw products rich with iron.

5. Short cold douche. Сold as well as physical exercises, stimulates bone stock to develop red corpuscles. Water shouldn’t be iced, choose a suitable for you temperature within 10-17 degrees. If this way is unacceptable for you try attrition with cold mittens. For this purpose before skin attrition dip mittens into cold water.

6. Food is recommended to be cooked in iron crockery, so micro particles of iron can get into food.

7. Preference should be given to daily use of water from wells as it is richer with iron than usual tap water. The periodic use of mineral water enriched with iron is welcomed.

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Diet At Anemia

Diet is a main key to reach a success in treatment of anemia. Generally, the ration of the patient has to consist of not refined and raw products. The diet for people suffering of anemia should correspond to certain rules. The following tips will help you to choose balanced ration.

1. Limit the use of dairy products as they reduce natural ability of human organism to absorb iron and some other useful substances. The same concerns tea and coffee. Orange juice, to the contrary, increases this ability.

2. At the availability of damages of an oral cavity (cracks, wounds) avoid using too hot and spicy food.

3. Fresh or dried apricots, plums, peaches can promote hemoglobin content increase. Grapes, raisin and apples carry out the same function but their effect is not so strong. Whole wheat flour and porridge are useful for normalization of hemoglobin level .

4. The fruit, vegetables and greens are rich with vitamin C (citrus, green onions, parsley) and help iron absorption.

5. Vegetables with brightly green leaves have the highest iron content.

6. Eating eggs prevents human organism to absorb iron from other food.

7. Bananas are very rich with iron and their regular use normalizes hemoglobin level in blood.

8. Honey promotes fast uptake of iron.

9. Using food rich with iron it is recommended to wash it down with acidic juice from oranges, pomegranate, grapefruit, apple or a lemon. The matter is that in acidic medium iron is quicker absorbed by human organism.

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