The hemolytic anemia arising because of destruction of red bloody cells is usually a consequence of immune reactions. But many physical (water penetration into lungs), chemical (some poisons) and biological (infection with malaria) factors to lead to hemolysis.
Immune hemolytic anemia can be isoimmune and autoimmune. They arise under the influence of anti-erythrocyte antibodies.
Hemolytic anemia of newborns is referred to isoimmune, (incompatibility on rhesus systems and AVO between mother and fetus), anemia after hem transfusion (post transfusion).
At autoimmune anemia there is a disorder of immunologic tolerance to own erythrocytes, sometimes to the proteins similar to antigens of erythrocytes. Antibodies to such antigens (for example, microbial) are capable to react with normal antigens of own erythrocytes, blocking them that leads to destruction of bloody cells. Destruction of erythrocytes takes place in liver, spleen, marrow.
There are acute and chronic kinds of hemolytic anemia. Symptomatic autoimmune anemia develops at various illnesses: chronic acute leucosis, lymphogranulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, pseudo rheumatism.
At acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia the patient has quickly increasing weakness, dyspnea, and heartbeat. There are heartaches, sometimes in loin, body temperature increases, there is a vomiting. The intensive icterus is visible on skin.
At chronic process health of patients is satisfactory even at strong anemia the icterus is moderate, spleen and sometimes liver enlarged.