At patients with congenital heart diseases exogenous anemia – nutritional hypochromic iron deficiency is often observed. At this form of anemia the quantity of erythrocytes the total quality of hemoglobin is reduced, but concentration and hemoglobin content in erythrocytes is not so much reduced. The volume of erythrocytes decreases and the color indicator decreases.
For children hypochromic anemia is peculiar. It develops, despite quantity increase of erythrocytes, and differs in normal or low amount of hemoglobin at appreciable depression of color indicator. By 5-6 months of life the iron reserves by the time of the birth accumulated in liver are exhausted. Also children have a low concentration of the hydrochloric acid in a gastric juice, and the iron received with nutrition is badly soaked up. Heart diseases are accompanied often by a rickets and short-reception of nutrients by organism.
In children suffering from congenital cardiac defects of “blue” type except the specified factors chronic hypoxia at which pathological reaction of an organism – a polycythemia (increase of quantity of red bloody cells) develops becomes perceptible. But because of a dystrophy and balance disorder of iron marrow produces many erythrocytes poor in hemoglobin, with reduced diameter.
Frequency of hypochromic anemia for children sick with congenital heart diseases is 50%. Despite a hypoxia, skin cyanosis is insignificant or absent. Skin of pale gray color, hypotrophy, and rickets is often. Liver is considerably enlarged, heart failure increases, there are dyspnea, tachycardia, cardiac enlargement.