Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia

Folic acid deficiency anemia arises at deficit of folic acid. The isolated deficiency of this vitamin is met rather seldom, unlike pernicious anemia at which together with B12 vitamin deficiency often there is also folic acid deficiency, the exchange of these substances is interconnected.

Folic acid is responsible for intestinal absorption of B12 vitamin. It is also called B9 vitamin. It is contained in vegetable products – fresh greenery, especially spinach. Some quantity of folic acid is contained in fish, eggs, and dairy products. Heat treatment of products containing folic acid leads to loss of vitamin half. Folic acid “is quickly washed away” from organism, approximately in 5 weeks, folic acid deficiency anemia may develop in few months of its insufficient supply to organism.

The patient with ffolic acid deficiency anemia is flaccid, sedentary. Frequency of heartbeats is increased. The skin has an unhealthy appearance, hair and fingernails are dim, fragile. Hair quickly turns gray, fingernails are bent, mild yellowing of skin and white of the eyes.

Temperature can rise to 38 degrees. Tongue is affected: eating hot nutrition causes pain, the outer covering of tongue becomes smooth, as if varnished. Inflammatory processes develop in stomach and intestine. Functioning of internals is broken.

Besides folic acid deficiency in food carcinoma of the stomach atrophic gastritis, helminthiases, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, long taking of analgesics, consequences of operations on intestine (especially excision of its appreciable pieces) can cause folic acid deficiency anemia.

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Thalassemia is disorder of normal hemoglobin synthesis. Its changed molecules transport oxygen worse. Red bloody little bodies with the changed hemoglobin are unstable and quicker perish.

Illness is often met in Europe, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. If the person inherited defective genes from both parents, implications of illness are much more serious.

The clinic of thalassemia is shown in the childhood. Sick children have a peculiar “tower” skull, wide Mongoloid face, enlarged top jaw. In patients liver and spleen are enlarged. In some time cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure are formed. All this is connected to strengthened hemopoiesis and destruction of erythrocytes, accumulation and sediment of iron compounds in the internals. The child has development gap, skin is cyanotic and icteric, there are trophic ulcers on sheens. Often gallstone disease illness develops, bilirubin stones are found in the cholic courses.

Thalassemia is treated with transfusion of erythrocytes. The packed red cells at frequent transfusions is more preferable than an integral blood, it contains less antigens irritating immune system.

At a serious form of illness the need for transfusions arises from first months of child life and remains for life. Hemoglobin level in blood of patients decreases without transfusions, and there are no other ways of its increasing. It is desirable to carry out transfusion at hemoglobin level of 95-100 g/l, without allowing it to decrease.

Selection of donors is carried out individually as at continuous transfusions the immune system starts reacting with other proteins of donor’s erythrocytes surface besides antigens of systems AVO and rhesus which are always considered.

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Drepanocytic anemia

Drepanocytic anemia is shown by the symptoms conected to thrombosis of organs vessels with erythrocytes of falciform shape and hemolytic anemia. It is genetic defect at which red bloody cells have a falciform shape, instead of usual disk-shaped.

Disease is hereditary, people are not recommended to marry drepanocytic anemia with each other. In the tropical countries falciform erythrocytes are affected with malaria and their carriers better survive in places of diffusion of this infection.

At initial stage of illness marrow is affected. There is a tumescence and pain because of thrombosis of organs vessels feeding a hip joint. Destruction of femur head with development of purulent infection is possible. The hemolytic crises (connected to mass destruction of erythrocytes) develop after infections and cause f death of patients with drepanocytic anemia.

In future hemolytic anemia threatens the patient constantly. An active hemopoiesis for replacement of losses leads to excessive development of marrow. There are characteristic changes of a skeleton: the bent backbone, tower skull, thin extremities. The liver and spleen are enlarged. Accumulation of iron in heart and other internals leads to heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis. Trophic ulcers on legs are characteristic. There can be a stroke, paralysis of cranial nerves. The majority of patients with a serious form of anemia die within five years.

Drepanocytic anemia cannot be cured completely. Symptomatic antibiotics, blood transfusion and oxygen are applied.

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Prophylaxis Of Anemia

The healthy nutrition is extremely important for the prevention of anemia. As a rule, the diet is important and treatment of already arisen anemia. In vegetarians anemia connected to deficiency of B12 vitamin, important for formation of red blood cells, often develops. Vitamin is contained only in animal products – meat, fish, egg yolks, milk. But at shortage in a ration of vegetables there is a folic deficiency anemia. Folic Acid is contained in vegetable products. The ration has to be balanced.

But more often the anemia develops at iron deficiency. Need for iron is the highest in children and teenagers during rapid growth, and in pregnant women. If the woman often gives birth to children (breaks less than two years), iron reserves in her are exhausted.

Men have anemia less often. The excessive consumption of iron is caused in them by serious exercise stresses, illnesses, injuries, stress, overwork. At larger exercise stresses it is recommended to use products rich with iron – beef, liver and other offal, mushrooms, egg yolks, porridge, buckwheat, peas, soybeans, spinach, sorrel, apples, green lettuce leaves, beet, cabbage, carrots, garden radish, dried grapes and apricots, fig, prunes, citrus, cocoa, nuts. But iron is poorly acquired from fish and veal.

Women during menses are recommended to take ferriferous medicines.

It is better to select a diet individually with the help of professional dietarian. Perhaps, it will be required to treat at first if blood tests show that anemia has already developed.

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Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia is a shortage of the B12 vitamins or folic acid important for hemopoiesis. Anemia develops slowly, the patient complains of weakness, fatigability, dyspnea, frequent heartbeat at loads, giddiness.

At the evident anemia cutaneous covering are pale and icteric. Some patients are disturbed by pain in tongue, swallowing disorder. It is connected to glossitis (tongue inflammation). Spleen, sometimes liver are enlarged. The nervous system is affected, sensitivity disfunction, there is a constant pain in extremities, similar to pricking. There is an acute muscular weakness due to what there is gait dysfunction, muscles can atrophy.

If not to treat a disease the spinal cord is affected. Symmetrically the lower extremities are affected, superficial and painful sensitivity in them is broken. The lesion gradually extends up on stomach. The hearing and sense of smell are broken, visual and auditory hallucinations, delirium, memory disturbances are possible. In severe cases exhaustion, paralysis of feet is observed.

Pernicious more often anemia develops at affected absorption of vitamins. Deficiency of vitamins in food at vegetarianism and alcoholism can become the course of disease. Anemia quite often develops in pregnant women, nursing mothers suffering from psoriasis people. In suckling on artificial feeding pernicious anemia arises at using goat milk instead of cow.

For treatment it is necessary to balance nutrition. Carry out intravenous injection of B12 vitamin. Depending on severity of anemia the course of treatment lasts month or more. It isn’t necessary to prescribe iron medicines.

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Treatment Of Anemia With Traditional Medicine

The agents rich with iron or promoting its best absorption are found in traditional medicine on the basis of practical experience long ago. Some vitamins are useful at anemia which is not connected with of iron deficiency.

At anemia it is recommended to drink stewed carrot juice, beet and black radish juice. It is necessary to take for half of glass of juice of all listed vegetables, to pour in pottery and to place in slightly warmed oven for one hour, then juice will be ready. Stewed juice of vegetables needs to be drunk three times a day for two tablespoons, it is best of all in 20 minutes before meals. Duration of treatment course is two-three months.

At anemia traditional medicine advises to include apples, walnuts, buckwheat cereal, pomegranate juice in a ration.

The larger advantage is noted at anemia of the following mixture of freshly squeezed juice: 200 ml of garnet juice, for 100 ml lemon, apple and carrot. Add 70 grams of fresh honey. Having mixed all ingredients, place it into refrigerator in corked ware. Two tablespoons take three times a day. Before use it is necessary to warm up a little.

Apples contain a lot of iron. At iron deficiency anemia it is recommended to cut six larger green apples mix with 400 grams of axunge. This mass is placed into oven. 12 yolks of eggs mash with glass of sugar, add 400 grams of crushed chocolate. Admix two compounds and pass through a sieve. Received sandwiches are eaten with hot milk when felt like. The increase in weight in a week on 1-1.5 kg is possible.

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Myelo-dysplastic Syndrome

Myelo-displastic syndrome is group of diseases at which marrow is incapable to make enough healthy cells of blood. At this syndrome normal erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes are not formed of stem cells.

Erythrocytes transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, leucocytes are responsible for fight against infections, thrombocytes form bloody clots and prevent bleedings. At deficiency of blood cells there can easily be infection, anemia or bleeding.

At myelo-displastic syndrome in blood and marrow there are few healthy cells of blood. Myelo-displastic syndrome develops after radiation therapy (in patients with tumors), treatment by medicines toxicant for marrow in elderly patients. Also white skin color, male gender, tobacco smoking, contact to pesticides, solvents, gasoline, effect of heavy metals (mercury, lead) refer to risk factors.

Myelo-displastic syndrome can be shown by weakness, tiredness, dyspnea. Patient’s skin is acyanotic; bruises are formed even at minor injuries. Increased bleeding sickness becomes perceptible; under skin flat punctual bruises with dimensions about pin head (petechias) are visible. Sometimes increased body temperature, often there are infectious diseases. All these symptoms require thorough examination of the patient.

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Treatment of Anemia With Herbs

Traditional medicine within centuries developed effective recipes for treatment of anemia.

It is possible to increase hemoglobin with following way: to mix one part of onions juice and three parts of aloe juice (century plant). It is necessary to store medicine in refrigerator, take it for 2-3 times a day with tablespoons.

Apply stinging nettle for treatment of anemia. One tablespoon of crushed dry leaves is filled in with a glass of boiling water. Within an hour brew in the closed ware then filter. Take one tablespoon three times per day better for half an hour before meals. Also juice of young leaves and flowers of nettle helps. They are passed via the meat grinder; juice is pressed out through gauze. Drink one tablespoon of juice three times a day. It is admitted to store it in refrigerator about three days.

Treatment with marshmallow is recommended. 100 grams of dry roots or fruits of plant grind into powder and stir in a glass of fresh sheep milk. Once a day take a half of teaspoon of mixture it is possible with honey till state improves.

The sake of carrots and carrot juice is noted. A half-glass of fresh juice admix with half a glass of boiling milk, drink in the morning on an empty stomach.

Aloe is also applied in combination with lemon. Pass one lemon and five large leaves of century plant kept for three days in the freezer through meat grinder. Mix this mass with a glass of liquid honey. Three times a day take one tablespoon within one-three months.

Dog rose also helps well at anemia. 5 tablespoons of dried crushed fruits fill in with liter of water in the enameled ware, boil 10 minutes on weak fire. Then the pan is wrapped up and left for night. Drink medicine like tea at any time.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

The iron deficiency anemia (anemia) develops at weak supply of iron or chronic loss of blood when there is an absolute decrease of reserves of iron in organism.

Hemorrhage is the main cause of anemia. Regular small losses happen at stomach ulcer, hemorrhoids, long and plentiful menses, urolithiasis and inflammations in kidneys, hemodialysis in patients with renal failure.

The disadvantage of iron happens practically at all adherents of vegetarianism. But even at the sufficient use of iron with nutrition its relative shortage can arise during pregnancy, breast-feeding, intensive body growth, sport trainings.

At an iron deficiency anemia erythrocytes (red bloody cells) look cyanotic under in microscope, are reduced in dimensions.

Patients complain of weakness, working capacity decrease, sleepiness. At severe anemia syncope is possible. The food faddism, dryness of tongue, swallowing disorder, feeling of foreign matter in pharynx is observed. There is a dyspnea, frequent heartbeat. The skin and hair is dry, fingernails become fragile. Skin is cyanotic with a greenish shade and blush of cheeks. Hair is easily fractured, thin, early turn gray. Muscular weakness, which is absent at other types of anemia, is typical. There are atrophic changes in mucosa. Appetite is reduced. There is a need for salty, sour and spicy food. Sometimes the patient eats chalk, lime, ice, raw cereals. After taking iron drugs symptoms quickly disappear.

For treatment of iron deficiency anemia it is necessary to eliminate its causes, to accept iron medicines, to keep a diet (meat, liver).

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Hemolytic Anemia

The hemolytic anemia arising because of destruction of red bloody cells is usually a consequence of immune reactions. But many physical (water penetration into lungs), chemical (some poisons) and biological (infection with malaria) factors to  lead to hemolysis.

Immune hemolytic anemia can be isoimmune and autoimmune. They arise under the influence of anti-erythrocyte antibodies.

Hemolytic anemia of newborns is referred to isoimmune, (incompatibility on rhesus systems and AVO between mother and fetus), anemia after hem transfusion (post transfusion).

At autoimmune anemia there is a disorder of immunologic tolerance to own erythrocytes, sometimes to the proteins similar to antigens of erythrocytes. Antibodies to such antigens (for example, microbial) are capable to react with normal antigens of own erythrocytes, blocking them that leads to destruction of bloody cells. Destruction of erythrocytes takes place in liver, spleen, marrow.

There are acute and chronic kinds of hemolytic anemia. Symptomatic autoimmune anemia develops at various illnesses: chronic acute leucosis, lymphogranulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, pseudo rheumatism.

At acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia the patient has quickly increasing weakness, dyspnea, and heartbeat. There are heartaches, sometimes in loin, body temperature increases, there is a vomiting. The intensive icterus is visible on skin.

At chronic process health of patients is satisfactory even at strong anemia the icterus is moderate, spleen and sometimes liver enlarged.

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